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Film morphology has predominant influence on the performance of multilayered organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), whereas there is little reported literature from the angle of the molecular level to investigate the impact on film-forming ability and device performance. In this work, four isomeric cross-linkable electron-transport materials constructed with pyridine, 1,2,4-triazole, and vinylbenzyl ether groups were developed for inkjet-printed OLEDs. Their lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (∼3.20 eV) and highest occupied molecular orbital (∼6.50 eV) levels are similar, which are mainly determined by the 1,2,4-triazole groups. The triplet energies of these compounds can be tuned from 2.51 to 2.82 eV by different coupling modes with the core of pyridine, where the 2,6-pyridine-based compound has the highest value of 2.82 eV. Film formation and solubility of the compounds were investigated. It was found that the 2,6-pyridine-based compound outperformed the 2,4-pyridine, 2,5-pyridine, and 3,5-pyridine-based compounds. The spin-coated blue OLEDs based on the four compounds have achieved over 14.0% external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) at the luminance of 100 cd m-2, and a maximum EQE of 12.1% was obtained for the inkjet-printed device with 2,6-pyridine-based compound.

Original publication




Journal article


ACS Appl Mater Interfaces

Publication Date





38716 - 38727


blue phosphorescence, cross-linkable, electron-transport material, inkjet printing, organic light-emitting diodes