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The development of a low-temperature method of producing bioactive coatings for medical implants has been shown to bypass the problems associated with high temperature processing routes, in particular the appearance of amorphous phases and non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA), and delamination of the coating from the substrate. An electric field/aqueous solution technique for producing adherent, crack-free calcium phosphate coatings on titanium and stainless steel substrates is described. The characteristics of the coating are a function of electrode spacing, supersaturation, temperature and current and voltage conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterized the surface morphology of the coatings, which were shown to be HA. The possibility of producing a coating of carbonate-substituted HA having the same chemical composition as bone apatite, and forming at physiological temperatures, has also been demonstrated. The size of the microstructure decreased and the morphology changed as the carbonate ion concentration in the calcium and phosphate ion solution increased.

Original publication




Journal article


J Mater Sci Mater Med

Publication Date





219 - 222