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A new method is developed to fabricate a refractive microlens array by etching ammonium dichromate gelatin (ADG) with enzyme solution. The light exposes ADG through a high contrast binary mask, then the exposed parts of ADG generate a cross-linking reaction. Usually, the relief achieved by water developing is very shallow <1 μm), so we compound a 0.2% concentration protein enzyme solution as the developer to develop ADG and deepen its relief. At 37°C, the biochemical reaction occurs between ADG and the enzyme solution, and because of surface tension, ADG turns to spherical structure after developing. The optimum technique parameters of this process are presented. The principle of etching ADG with an enzyme solution to achieve deep relief and the swelling of ADG are discussed in detail. The process of fabricating microlens array does not require the use of expensive equipment, and it is not sophisticated and time consuming. Results are presented for experiments and evaluated by a profile meter and an interference microscope. © 2001 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

Original publication




Journal article


Optical Engineering

Publication Date





2022 - 2025