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A model is presented of heat transfer and temperature distributions in the skin and superficial tissues. It is based on a finite difference numerical solution of the one-dimensional multilayer coupled bioheat equation. In this paper, the model is used to investigate the influence of the values of parameters chosen to represent the physiological and heat transfer processes on the temperature of the skin under resting conditions and after insulation of the skin surface. Equilibrium resting temperatures were strongly influenced by deep body temperature especially at lower heat transfer coefficients on the skin surface, but slightly affected by the values chosen for skin blood flow and metabolic heat generation; both the heat transfer coefficients and environmental temperature strongly influenced the surface temperature. After surface insulation the temperature elevation was strongly influenced by the thermal conductivities of tissues, skin blood flow and deep boundary temperature; metabolic heat generation was only significantly at unphysiologically high values.

Original publication




Journal article


Phys Med Biol

Publication Date





1683 - 1697


Humans, Models, Biological, Rest, Skin Temperature