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A novel real-time gray-scale photolithography technique for the fabrication of continuous microstructures that uses a LCD panel as a real-time gray-scale mask is presented. The principle of design of the technique is explained, and computer simulation results based on partially coherent imaging theory are given for the patterning of a microlens array and a zigzag grating. An experiment is set up, and a microlens array and a zigzag grating on panchromatic silver halide sensitized gelatin with trypsinase etching are obtained. © 2002 Optical Society of America.

Original publication




Journal article


Optics Letters

Publication Date





1720 - 1722