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The multi-level method for discrete-state systems, first introduced by Anderson and Higham (SIAM Multiscale Model Simul 10(1):146-179, 2012), is a highly efficient simulation technique that can be used to elucidate statistical characteristics of biochemical reaction networks. A single point estimator is produced in a cost-effective manner by combining a number of estimators of differing accuracy in a telescoping sum, and, as such, the method has the potential to revolutionise the field of stochastic simulation. In this paper, we present several refinements of the multi-level method which render it easier to understand and implement, and also more efficient. Given the substantial and complex nature of the multi-level method, the first part of this work reviews existing literature, with the aim of providing a practical guide to the use of the multi-level method. The second part provides the means for a deft implementation of the technique and concludes with a discussion of a number of open problems.


Journal article


Bulletin of mathematical biology

Publication Date





1640 - 1677


Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK.