Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Responsive Changes in Collagen and Elastin Networks in Skin.
Aziz J., Shezali H., Radzi Z., Yahya NA., Abu Kassim NH., Czernuszka J., Rahman MT.
Collagen and elastin networks make up the majority of the extracellular matrix in many organs, such as the skin. The mechanisms which are involved in the maintenance of homeostatic equilibrium of these networks are numerous, involving the regulation of genetic expression, growth factor secretion, signalling pathways, secondary messaging systems, and ion channel activity. However, many factors are capable of disrupting these pathways, which leads to an imbalance of homeostatic equilibrium. Ultimately, this leads to changes in the physical nature of skin, both functionally and cosmetically. Although various factors have been identified, including carcinogenesis, ultraviolet exposure, and mechanical stretching of skin, it was discovered that many of them affect similar components of regulatory pathways, such as fibroblasts, lysyl oxidase, and fibronectin. Additionally, it was discovered that the various regulatory pathways intersect with each other at various stages instead of working independently of each other. This review paper proposes a model which elucidates how these molecular pathways intersect with one another, and how various internal and external factors can disrupt these pathways, ultimately leading to a disruption in collagen and elastin networks.