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A method is described for the production and assay of pseudotype viruses between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Cocal virus (COV), containing an HIV-1 envelope and a COV genome (COV(HIV)). COV(HIV) pseudotype virus is a useful tool for the investigation of a variety of questions regarding HIV entry into susceptible cells, including steps in virus binding, fusion, and internalization, and the role of molecules which inhibit entry. COV, a rhabdovirus closely related to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), replicated and caused cytopathic effect in primary cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and in human cell lines of lymphocytoid or monocytoid origin, making it an ideal candidate for pseudotype production. 174XCEM cells, which were permissive for selected macrophage-tropic strains as well as most lymphocyte-tropic strains of HIV-1, were used to produce stocks of putative pseudotype virus. To neutralize parental COV in these stocks, a rabbit antiserum was produced which had a neutralization index of > 10(7) at a dilution of 1:100. Using these methods, pseudotype viruses were produced with a titer of about 10(4) PFU per ml; these same stocks contained HIV-1 at a titer of about 10(5) TCD50 per ml and COV at a titer of about 10(8) PFU per ml. CD4-expressing HeLa cells were used to assay pseudotype stocks made with lymphocyte-tropic strains of HIV-1. The authenticity of the pseudotype stocks was validated by several controls, including their failure to register on congenic CD4-negative HeLa cells and their inhibition by monoclonal anti-CD4 antibodies such as Leu 3a.

Original publication




Journal article


J Virol Methods

Publication Date





287 - 304


Animals, CD4 Antigens, Cell Line, Cells, Cultured, Cricetinae, Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral, Genome, Viral, HIV-1, Humans, Lymphocytes, Macrophages, Neutralization Tests, Rabbits, Vesiculovirus, Viral Plaque Assay, Virion, Virus Replication