Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

A growing body of work has shown that the highly homologous T-box transcription factors TBX2 and TBX3 play critical but distinct roles in embryonic development and cancer progression. For example, TBX2 and TBX3 are up-regulated in several cancers and recent evidence suggests that whereas TBX2 functions as a pro-proliferative factor, TBX3 inhibits cell proliferation but promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. While the molecular mechanisms regulating these functions of TBX2 and TBX3 are poorly understood we recently reported that the TGF-β1 signaling pathway up-regulates TBX3 expression to mediate, in part, its well described anti-proliferative and pro-migratory roles. The TBX3 targets responsible for these functions were however not identified. Here we reveal for the first time that the TGF-β1 signaling pathway represses TBX2 transcriptionally and we provide a detailed mechanism to show that this is mediated by TBX3. Furthermore, we implicate the down-regulation of TBX2 in the anti-proliferative function of the TGF-β1-TBX3 axis. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the regulation of TBX2 and TBX3 and shed light on the mechanisms involved in the anti-proliferative and pro-migratory roles of TGF-β1.

Original publication




Journal article


J Biol Chem

Publication Date





35633 - 35643


Cell Cycle, Cell Proliferation, Gene Expression, TBX2, TBX3, Transcription Factor, Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β), p21, Animals, Binding Sites, Blotting, Western, Cell Line, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation, Down-Regulation, Gene Expression, Humans, Mutation, Oncogene Proteins, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Protein Binding, RNA Interference, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Signal Transduction, T-Box Domain Proteins, Transforming Growth Factor beta1