Chitosan/gelatin porous scaffolds containing hyaluronic acid and heparan sulfate for neural tissue engineering.
Guan S., Zhang X-L., Lin X-M., Liu T-Q., Ma X-H., Cui Z-F.
The novel chitosan (Cs)/gelatin (Gel) porous scaffolds containing hyaluronic acid (HA) and heparan sulfate (HS) were fabricated via freeze-drying technique, and their physicochemical characteristics including pore size, porosity, water absorption, and in vitro degradation and biocompatibility were investigated. It was demonstrated that the Cs/Gel/HA/HS composite scaffolds had highly homogeneous and interconnected pores with porosity above 96% and average pore size ranging from 90 to 140 μm and a controllable degradation rate. The scanning electron microscopic images, cell viability assay, and fluorescence microscopy observation revealed that the presence of HA and HS in the scaffolds significantly promoted initial neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) adhesion and supported long-time growth in three-dimensional environment. Moreover, NS/PCs also maintained mutilineage differentiation potentials with enhanced neuronal differentiation upon induction in the Cs/Gel/HA/HS composite scaffolds in relation to Cs/Gel scaffolds. These results indicated that the Cs/Gel/HA/HS composite scaffolds were suitable for neural cells' adhesion, survival, and growth and could offer new and important options for neural tissue engineering applications.