Ammonium-directed olefinic epoxidation: kinetic and mechanistic insights.
Brennan MB., Claridge TDW., Compton RG., Davies SG., Fletcher AM., Henstridge MC., Hewings DS., Kurosawa W., Lee JA., Roberts PM., Schoonen AK., Thomson JE.
The ammonium-directed olefinic epoxidations of a range of differentially N-substituted cyclic allylic and homoallylic amines (derived from cyclopentene, cyclohexene, and cycloheptene) have been investigated, and the reaction kinetics have been analyzed. The results of these studies suggest that both the ring size and the identity of the substituents on nitrogen are important in determining both the overall rate and the stereochemical outcome of the epoxidation reaction. In general, secondary amines or tertiary amines with nonsterically demanding substituents on nitrogen are superior to tertiary amines with sterically demanding substituents on nitrogen in their ability to promote the oxidation reaction. Furthermore, in all cases examined, the ability of the (in situ formed) ammonium substituent to direct the stereochemical course of the epoxidation reaction is either comparable or superior to that of the analogous hydroxyl substituent. Much slower rates of ring-opening of the intermediate epoxides are observed in cyclopentene-derived and cycloheptene-derived allylic amines as compared with their cyclohexene-derived allylic and homoallylic amine counterparts, allowing for isolation of these intermediates in both of the former cases.