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Introduction: Retinal focal nodular gliosis (FNG), also known as vasoproliferative tumors (VPTs), are rare, benign vascular tumors associated with exudation with no current consensus onmanagement. Herein,we describe the varied clinical course andmanagement of 3 patients with retinal FNG, one of whom is associated with retinitis pigmentosa. Case Presentations: Case 1 is a 76-year-old female who presented with reduced vision and distortion secondary to a vitreous hemorrhage and epiretinal membrane (ERM) as complications of a known small peripheral retinal FNG. She underwent vitrectomy for the hemorrhage to relieve vascular traction and the ERM peel, and the tumor was kept under observation. Case 2 is a 24-year-old female with genetically uncharacterized retinitis pigmentosalike phenotype who presented with gradual loss of central vision in one eye due to cystoid macular oedema (CMO). She was found to have two peripheral retinal areas of FNG located inferonasally. Tumors were treated with cryotherapy and adjuvant intraocular steroid implant to control the CMO. Case 3 is a 28-year-old female with retinitis pigmentosa secondary to genetically confirmed variant in CRB1 gene who presented with intractable right eye CMO and localized inferior serous retinal detachment secondary to a large inferotemporal FNG. Her left eye has no light perception vision due to previous extensive serous retinal detachment and anterior segment ischemia. The right eye tumor was managed with multiple rounds of cryotherapy and laser therapy to control the serous detachment. Despite this, the condition progressed and was ultimately treated with plaque brachytherapy. Unfortunately, this resulted in extensive retinal inflammation causing annular tractional retinal detachment which was treated with combined pars plana vitrectomy and scleral buckle. Conclusion: We characterized the retinal phenotype of 3 patients with retinal FNG (VPTs) and found them to have varied clinical courses requiring tailored surgical management. The case associated with retinitis pigmentosa had a known pathogenic variant in Crumbs homolog-1 (CRB1) gene affecting retinal structure and exhibited a more severe clinical course. It is therefore important for patients with retinal dystrophies to undergo thorough peripheral examinations and detect FNG early as they may require prompt, aggressive treatment.

Original publication




Journal article


Ocular Oncology and Pathology

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