Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Objective: Dyspnea, or breathlessness, is an important symptom in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND). We examined the measurement properties of the Dyspnea-12. Methods: Rasch analysis enabled conversion of raw Dyspnea-12 scores to interval level metric equivalents. Converted data were used to perform trajectory modeling; those following different trajectories were compared for demographic, clinical, symptom, and functioning characteristics. Logistic regression examined differences between distinct trajectories. Results: In 1022 people, at baseline, mean metric Dyspnea-12 was 7.6 (SD 9.3). 49.8% had dyspnea, severe in 12.6%. Trajectory analysis over 28 months revealed three breathlessness trajectories: group 1 reported none at baseline/follow-up (42.7%); group 2 significantly increased over time (9.4%); group 3 had a much higher level at baseline which rose over follow-up (47.9%). Group 3 had worse outcomes on all symptoms, functioning and quality of life; compared to group 1, their odds of: respiratory onset sixfold greater; King's stage ≥3 2.9 greater; increased odds of being bothered by choking, head drop, fasciculations, and muscle cramps; fatigue and anxiety also elevated (p 

Original publication




Journal article


Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener

Publication Date



1 - 11


Dyspnea, Rasch, breathlessness, measure, trajectories of outcome in neurological conditions-ALS