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PURPOSE: To investigate the phenotype, variability, and penetrance of IMPG2-related maculopathy. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Clinical evaluation, multimodal retinal imaging, genetic testing, and molecular modeling. RESULTS: A total of 25 individuals with a mono-allelic IMPG2 variant were included, 5 of whom were relatives of patients with IMPG2-associated retinitis pigmentosa. A distinct maculopathy was present in 17 individuals (median age, 52 years; range, 20-72 years), and included foveal elevation with or without subretinal vitelliform material or focal atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was ≥20/50 in the better eye (n = 15), and 5 patients were asymptomatic. Longitudinal observation (n = 8, up to 19 years) demonstrated stable maculopathy (n = 3), partial/complete resorption (n = 4) or increase (n = 1) of the subretinal material, with overall stable vision (n = 6). No manifest maculopathy was observed in 8 individuals (median age, 58 years; range, 43-83 years; BCVA ≥20/25), all were identified through segregation analysis. All 8 individuals were asymptomatic, with minimal foveal changes observed on optical coherence tomography in 3 cases. A total of 18 different variants were detected, 11 of them truncating. Molecular modeling of 5 missense variants [c.727G>C, c.1124C>A, c.2816T>A, c.3047T>C, and c.3193G>A] supported the hypothesis that these have a loss-of-function effect. CONCLUSIONS: Mono-allelic IMPG2 variants may result in haploinsufficiency manifesting as a maculopathy with variable penetrance and expressivity. Family members of patients with IMPG2-related retinitis pigmentosa may present with vitelliform lesions. The maculopathy often remains limited to the fovea and is usually associated with moderate visual impairment.

Original publication




Journal article


Am J Ophthalmol

Publication Date





32 - 42


Humans, Middle Aged, Fluorescein Angiography, Macular Degeneration, Proteoglycans, Retinal Diseases, Retinitis Pigmentosa, Retrospective Studies, Tomography, Optical Coherence, Visual Acuity