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Since its conception in 1952, the Turing paradigm for pattern formation has been the subject of numerous theoretical investigations. Experimentally, this mechanism was first demonstrated in chemical reactions over 20 years ago and, more recently, several examples of biological self-organisation have also been implicated as Turing systems. One criticism of the Turing model is its lack of robustness, not only with respect to fluctuations in the initial conditions, but also with respect to the inclusion of delays in critical feedback processes such as gene expression. In this work we investigate the possibilities for Turing patterns on growing domains where the morphogens additionally regulate domain growth, incorporating delays in the feedback between signalling and domain growth, as well as gene expression. We present results for the proto-typical Schnakenberg and Gierer-Meinhardt systems: exploring the dynamics of these systems suggests a reconsideration of the basic Turing mechanism for pattern formation on morphogen-regulated growing domains as well as highlighting when feedback delays on domain growth are important for pattern formation.

Original publication




Journal article


Bull Math Biol

Publication Date





2527 - 2551


Animals, Body Patterning, Developmental Biology, Feedback, Physiological, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Growth Substances, Humans, Ligands, Mathematical Concepts, Models, Biological, Morphogenesis