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OBJECTIVE: The risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study was undertaken to determine whether diabetes mellitus (DM) increases ESRD risk in a large inception cohort of SLE patients. METHODS: By means of the Danish National Patient Registry, we identified 3,178 adult patients diagnosed as having SLE between January 1, 1996, and July 31, 2018. DM was defined as the date of first hospital contact for DM or date of a first prescription of an antidiabetic drug. ESRD was defined as first registration of dialysis, renal transplant, or terminal renal insufficiency in the Danish National Patient Registry. ESRD incidence was compared between SLE patients with DM (SLE-DM) and those without DM (SLE-non-DM). Hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for sex, age, educational level, and occupational status at baseline were calculated for sex, age, educational level, and hypertension (at baseline or during follow-up) strata. The overall hazard ratio (HR) was also adjusted for hypertension. RESULTS: The SLE-DM group included 290 patients, of whom 77% were female, compared with 85% of the 2,859 patients in the SLE-non-DM group. SLE-DM patients had a 3 times higher risk of ESRD compared with SLE-non-DM patients (multivariable-adjusted HR 3.3 [95% confidence interval 1.8-6.1]). In stratified multivariable-adjusted analyses, DM increased the rate of ESRD in women and men, patients ≥50 years old at baseline, those with low educational level at baseline, and those with concomitant hypertension. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that SLE patients with DM have a markedly higher risk of developing ESRD compared with SLE patients without DM.

Original publication




Journal article


Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)

Publication Date





1871 - 1877


Adult, Male, Humans, Female, Middle Aged, Cohort Studies, Risk Factors, Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Denmark