Characteristics of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and association with quality of life in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
Zinglersen AH., Iversen KK., Leffers HCB., Laugesen E., Fleischer J., Jacobsen S.
Objectives Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) may affect the clinical course of SLE leading to reduced quality of life. CAN is assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) measures and cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests (CARTs). In patients with SLE, we aimed to determine the characteristics of CAN and if CAN associates with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods Patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) were CAN tested with 5 min HRV and three CARTs to determine parameters reflecting parasympathetic and mixed sympathetic-parasympathetic function. Subjects were classified as having no, early or definitive CAN by having none, one or more than one abnormal CART, respectively. HRQoL as determined by the Short Form 12 (SF-12) was assessed in SLE. Results Of 111 patients with SLE, 92 answered the SF-12 and 54 were matched with 54 HCs for characterisation of CAN. Definitive CAN was present in 24.1% (95% CI 15% to 37%) patients with SLE and 1.9% (95% CI 0.3% to 9.8%) HCs (OR 16.8, 95% CI 2.1 to 133.8, p=0.008). The corresponding prevalences of any CAN were 53.7% (95% CI 41% to 66%) and 22.6% (95% CI 13% to 35%). SLE patients with definitive CAN showed signs of mixed sympathetic-parasympathetic dysfunction, whereas patients without CAN primarily presented with impaired parasympathetic activity. Signs of parasympathetic as well as sympathetic-parasympathetic dysfunction were associated with low physical SF-12 component score (all: β>0.211, p<0.05). The mental SF-12 component score was not associated with any CAN indices. Conclusions CAN was a frequent finding in SLE and associated to self-report on impaired physical HRQoL. Even patients without CAN showed signs of impaired parasympathetic function compared with controls.