CRISPR-Cas9 DNA Base-Editing and Prime-Editing.
Kantor A., McClements ME., MacLaren RE.
Many genetic diseases and undesirable traits are due to base-pair alterations in genomic DNA. Base-editing, the newest evolution of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas-based technologies, can directly install point-mutations in cellular DNA without inducing a double-strand DNA break (DSB). Two classes of DNA base-editors have been described thus far, cytosine base-editors (CBEs) and adenine base-editors (ABEs). Recently, prime-editing (PE) has further expanded the CRISPR-base-edit toolkit to all twelve possible transition and transversion mutations, as well as small insertion or deletion mutations. Safe and efficient delivery of editing systems to target cells is one of the most paramount and challenging components for the therapeutic success of BEs. Due to its broad tropism, well-studied serotypes, and reduced immunogenicity, adeno-associated vector (AAV) has emerged as the leading platform for viral delivery of genome editing agents, including DNA-base-editors. In this review, we describe the development of various base-editors, assess their technical advantages and limitations, and discuss their therapeutic potential to treat debilitating human diseases.