Asymmetric synthesis of 4-amino-γ-butyrolactones via lithium amide conjugate addition
Abraham E., Cooke JWB., Davies SG., Naylor A., Nicholson RL., Price PD., Smith AD.
Upon treatment with homochiral lithium (R)-N-benzyl-N-(α-methylbenzyl)amide, γ-benzyloxy but-2-enoates undergo competitive conjugate addition and γ-deprotonation, while γ-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy but-2-enoates undergo exclusive conjugate addition. Treatment of γ-benzyloxy or γ-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy but-2-enamides with lithium (R)-N-benzyl-N-(α-methylbenzyl)amide furnishes exclusively the γ-benzyloxy- or γ-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-β-amino amide products of conjugate addition in high de. The γ-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-β-amino butanoate products of conjugate addition readily undergo O-desilylation and concomitant cyclisation to furnish 4-[N-benzyl-N-(α-methylbenzyl)amino]-γ-butyrolactone, which may be stereoselectively functionalised via deprotonation and alkylation to give the corresponding trans-3-alkyl-4-amino-γ-butyrolactones. Alternatively, stereoselective alkylation of γ-benzyloxy- or γ-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-β-amino butanoates and butanamides through enolate formation and alkylation following a tandem (via the (Z)-lithium enolate) or stepwise (via the (E)-lithium enolate) protocol gives a range of separable syn- and anti-α-alkyl-β-amino esters and amides. O-Silyl deprotection of the syn- and anti-α-alkyl-β-amino butanoates with TBAF and concomitant cyclisation provide trans-3-alkyl-4-amino-γ-butyrolactones, consistent with epimerisation to the thermodynamically favoured trans-lactone occurring upon deprotection. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.