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The potential of human embryonic stem (ES) cells to meet the growing demand for cell types and tissues for the treatment of chronic and degenerative diseases has been widely acclaimed. Nevertheless, their use in cell replacement therapy poses a number of significant challenges, not least of which is their subsequent rejection by the recipient's immune system. Here we explore the extent of the immunological barriers encountered and evaluate the potential of different approaches to overcoming these issues of which somatic nuclear transfer (SNT) and the induction of transplanation tolerance are currently the most promising.

Original publication




Journal article


Stem Cell Rev

Publication Date





159 - 167


Animals, Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy, Dendritic Cells, Embryonic Stem Cells, Humans, Immunity, Stem Cell Transplantation