Identification of growth increments in the shell of the bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica using backscattered electron imaging.
Karney GB., Butler PG., Scourse JD., Richardson CA., Lau KH., Czernuszka JT., Grovenor CRM.
Annually resolved growth increments in the shell of the bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica have previously been used in combination with geochemical measurements to successfully construct high-resolution proxy records of past marine environmental conditions. However, to ensure the accuracy of these paleoenvironmental reconstructions it is essential that the annual growth series of increments within the examined shells are reliably identified, and can be distinguished from spurious lines caused by nonannual perturbations such as those resulting from storm disturbance. The current methods used for identifying the growth increment series are sometimes compromised because of ambiguity that results from the employed preparation methods. Here it is shown that backscattered electron imaging of polished shell cross sections may be used to clearly discriminate between the two compositionally and structurally distinct increments that comprise 1 year of outer shell growth. This method, involving minimal specimen preparation, is likely to be primarily useful as a validation technique of particular value in cases where increment identification using existing methods is difficult or ambiguous.