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Fabrication of scaffolds from biomaterials for restoration of defected mandible bone has attained increased attention due to limited accessibility of natural bone for grafting. Hydroxyapatite (Ha), collagen type 1 (Col1) and chitosan (Cs) are widely used biomaterials which could be fabricated as a scaffold to overcome the paucity of bone substitutes. Here, rabbit Col1, shrimp Cs and bovine Ha were extracted and characterized with respect to physicochemical properties. Following the biocompatibility, degradability and cytotoxicity tests for Ha, Col1 and Cs a hydroxyapatite/collagen/chitosan (Ha·Col1·Cs) scaffold was fabricated using thermally induced phase separation technique. This scaffold was cross-linked with (1) either glutaraldehyde (GTA), (2) de-hydrothermal treatment (DTH), (3) irradiation (IR) and (4) 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), resulting in four independent types (Ha·Col1·Cs-GTA, Ha·Col1·Cs-IR, Ha·Col1·Cs-DTH and Ha·Col1·Cs-HEMA). The developed composite scaffolds were porous with 3D interconnected fiber microstructure. However, Ha·Col1·Cs-IR and Ha·Col1·Cs-GTA showed better hydrophilicity and biodegradability. All four scaffolds showed desirable blood biocompatibility without cytotoxicity for brine shrimp. In vitro studies in the presence of human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells revealed that Ha·Col1·Cs-IR and Ha·Col1·Cs-DHT scaffolds were non-cytotoxic and compatible for cell attachment, growth and mineralization. Further, grafting of Ha·Col1·Cs-IR and Ha·Col1·Cs-DHT was performed in a surgically created non-load-bearing rabbit maxillofacial mandible defect model. Histological and radiological observations indicated the restoration of defected bone. Ha·Col1·Cs-IR and Ha·Col1·Cs-DHT could be used as an alternative treatment in bone defects and may contribute to further development of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Original publication




Journal article


Prog Biomater

Publication Date





137 - 154


AF-MSCs, Biocompatibility, Bone tissue engineering, Chitosan, Collagen, Hydroxyapatite, Mandible bone defect, Scaffold