The main objectives of this study were threefold: (1) To determine whether acute ingestion of Kme ; (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate impacts plasma glucose levels during a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). (2) To compare changes in insulin concentrations and estimates of insulin sensitivity after acute Kme supplementation. Twenty healthy participants (n = 10 males/females) aged between 18-35 years took part in a randomized crossover study. After an overnight fast, participants consumed a Kme supplement (ΔG®; 0.45 ml kg-1 body weight) or placebo (water) 30 min before completing a 75-gram OGTT. Blood samples were collected every 15-30 min over a period of 2.5 h. Participants and study personnel performing laboratory analyses were blinded to condition. Kme acutely raised blood D-beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) to 3.2±0.6 mm within 30 min with levels remaining elevated throughout the entire OGTT. Compared to placebo, Kme significantly decreased glucose area under the curve (AUC; -16%, P = 0.001), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) AUC (-44%, P < 0.001) and C-peptide incremental AUC (P = 0.005), while improving oral glucose insulin sensitivity index by ∼11% (P = 0.001). In conclusion, a Kme supplement that acutely increased β-OHB levels up to ∼3 mm attenuated the glycemic response to an OGTT in healthy humans. The reduction in glycemic response did not appear to be driven by an increase in insulin secretion, but was accompanied by improved markers of insulin sensitivity. These results suggest that ketone monoester supplements could have therapeutic potential in the management and prevention of metabolic disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The Journal of Physiology
Blackwell Publishing Inc.
School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Canada.