Biodistribution of therapeutic extracellular vesicles
Gupta D., Wiklander OPB., Wood MJA., El-Andaloussi S.
The field of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has seen a tremendous paradigm shift in the past two decades, from being regarded as cellular waste bags to being considered essential mediators in intercellular communication. Their unique ability to transfer macromolecules across cells and biological barriers has made them a rising star in drug delivery. Mounting evidence suggests that EVs can be explored as efficient drug delivery vehicles for a range of therapeutic macromolecules. In contrast to many synthetic delivery systems, these vesicles appear exceptionally well tolerated in vivo. This tremendous development in the therapeutic application of EVs has been made through technological advancement in labelling and understanding the in vivo biodistribution of EVs. Here in this review, we have summarised the recent findings in EV in vivo pharmacokinetics and discussed various biological barriers that need to be surpassed to achieve tissue-specific delivery.