Effect of telophase enucleation on bovine somatic nuclear transfer.
Liu JL., Wang MK., Sun QY., Xu Z., Chen DY.
Telophase enucleation has been proven to be an efficient method for preparing recipient cytoplasts in bovine embryonic nuclear transfer (2, 11). This research was designed to study in vitro development of bovine oocytes containing transferred somatic cell nuclei, reconstructed by using enucleated in vitro-matured oocytes 32 h of age at telophase II stage as recipient cytoplasts, compared with those 24 h of age at metaphase II stage. Two protocols for donor cell injection were adopted, i.e., subzonal injection (SUZI) and intracytoplasmic injection (ICI). Bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) and bovine cumulus cells (BCCs) from an adult cow were used as nuclear donors for these experiments. In SUZI groups, the fusion rate of donor cells, both BOECs and BCCs, with MII enucleated oocytes were higher than those with TII enucleated oocytes (54% vs. 41% and 53% vs. 39%, respectively; P<0.05), but the development rates to morula plus blastocyst stage in MII groups were lower than those in TII groups (22% vs. 39% and 21% vs. 41%, respectively; P<0.05). In ICI groups, about 26% of enucleated MII oocytes injected with BOECs or BCCs cleaved and only small parts of them developed to blastocyst stage (4% and 3%, respectively; P>0.05). When BOECs or BCCs were intracytoplasmically injected into oocytes enucleated at TII stage, no blastocyst was formed in either donor cell group and no cleavage occurred in BOEC group. Our data demonstrated that telophase enucleation is beneficial to early embryo development when bovine somatic nuclei are transferred by subzonal injection. However, it is harmful when donor cells are directly injected into the cytoplast of the enucleated oocytes.